After optimizing a kidney organoid differentiation protocol for application with hPSC lines we compared the degree of glomerular, tubular, and vascular maturation across time between organoids after renal subcapsular transplantation in the absence of any supporting growth factors versus organoids after continued culture in vitro. Using immunofluorescence, unbiased wide-field nano-electron microscopy and in vivo imaging, we show evidence for substantial glomerular, tubular, and vascular maturation only in the presence of a patent functional vasculature.
van den Berg CW, Ritsma L, Avramut MC, Wiersma LE, van den Berg BM, Leuning DG, Lievers E, Koning M, Vanslambrouck JM, Koster AJ, Howden SE, Takasato M, Little MH, Rabelink TJ. Stem Cell Reports. 2018 Feb 28. pii: S2213-6711(18)30067-5.